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Current Situation of Municipal Solid Waste Treatment in China

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Current Situation of Municipal Solid Waste Treatment in China

Date of release:2018-08-07 Author: Click:

Current Situation of Municipal Solid Waste Treatment in China



I. Basic Status Quo


In China, garbage disposal started relatively late, and the ability of harmless disposal of garbage was low. There was a serious situation that garbage surrounded the city. In recent years, China's environmental sanitation industry has made great progress, which has improved the level of urban garbage disposal and alleviated the phenomenon of garbage surrounding the city. According to statistics in 1994, there are about 380,000 sanitation workers in cities all over the country, with 34,400 sanitation machines and 35.8% garbage disposal rate. 609 non-hazardous disposal sites have been built. The capacity and rate of non-hazardous disposal of garbage have increased significantly in recent years. Major cities in China have established environmental health research institutes and carried out research on municipal waste treatment technology and equipment. During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the state allocated nearly ten million yuan and loaned tens of millions of yuan for the construction of scientific research, development and demonstration projects of municipal refuse composting, landfill, incineration and resource utilization.


Application of garbage disposal technology


Urban garbage control is a systematic project, including garbage collection, transportation, transshipment, treatment and resource utilization.


1. Collection of Urban Waste


At present, most cities and towns in China use mixed collection methods for garbage collection (except hospital garbage). The main garbage operation methods and equipment used are as follows: fixed garbage bin, garbage storage and collection, mobile garbage bin, garbage collection, garbage bin collection, plastic bag collection. Sealed container collection and ground garbage station collection, most cities can achieve timely garbage collection, keep the environment of residential areas clean.


2. Urban Waste Transportation


Overall, China's urban garbage mechanized collection and transportation rate is low, the labor intensity of sanitation workers is high, manual operation is inadequate, machinery and equipment performance is poor, about 40% of the country's sanitation equipment, vehicles and so on need to be updated, and about 10 million tons of urban garbage can not be transported to treatment sites in time every year.


3. Urban Waste Disposal


At present, like other countries in the world, sanitary landfill, composting and incineration are mainly used in waste disposal sites and recycling technologies in China. Most of the municipal wastes are disposed by heap and simple landfill, and sanitary landfill, mechanized composting and incineration are also partly used. Table 1 The disposal methods of municipal solid waste in China (1995) mainly include building materials (bricks) made from garbage and comprehensive utilization.


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(1) Application of Landfill Technology


For a long time, most cities in China have been treated by open-air stacking, natural filling ditches and filling pits. Only general anaerobic treatment can be achieved. However, in recent years, the construction of landfills has become more and more perfect. A number of high-level landfills have been built one after another, such as Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Suzhou, Beijing, Chengdu, Baotou and other cities, according to the actual situation of the city, established relatively perfect sanitary landfills. At the same time, the recovery and utilization technology of biogas produced in landfills has also been developed. At present, landfill is still the main harmless treatment method of urban landfill in China.


(2) Application of Composting Technology


In recent years, garbage composting has developed rapidly in China. Since the 1980s, secondary fermentation technology has been applied. Because of forced sealing and aerobic fermentation, the fermentation period has been shortened, the composting machinery is becoming more and more perfect, and the production tends to be industrialized. At present, Wuxi, Changzhou, Tianjin, Shenyang, Beijing, Wuhan and other cities have designed their own mechanized waste composting production lines suitable for China. Many cities still have quite a number of simple waste composting plants.


(3) Application of incineration technology


The study of waste incineration technology in China started in the mid-1980s. The incineration technology is the most effective way to treat waste harmlessly, quantitatively and resourcefully. For the future development mode of waste treatment, only a few cities in China have established waste incineration treatment plants in Shenzhen, Leshan and Xuzhou. Demonstration tests of incineration power generation have been carried out. The system runs well, but the scale is good. Not big, low daily processing capacity. Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Beihai, Guangzhou and other large and medium-sized cities are currently planning to build large-scale waste incineration sites.



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